Continuity is a concretization of time on material objects and the main command of the cosmic order. Material objects (individual or files) are either constant or changing value over time. Man is of course temporary, but society may be continuous if it produces offspring and its material existence. Continuity of this file only exists when it observes cosmic criteria. If objects do not behave according to these criteria they usually cease to exist. One of the commands of continuity is to maintain natural principles and listen to them. When a person is overcoming natural principles, transposition of rules of traditional order is required, to meet the cosmic criteria with the greatest degree of responsibility, but not through backwardness or rigid or ideological acts, through an attempt to preserve man and his civilization in his natural environment. Plato said that the beginning and the end never exist in the form of a substance. Existences of ideal beings (natural principles) are eternal and society which relies on it may also be eternal.
Equilibrium is the ratio of characteristics of entities (usually opposing) so that the most functionally advantageous relationship occurs. Historically it’s been perceived by people and addressed by various actions such as offerings to gods. These sacrifices asked God to do some work for the human society. Equlibrium had to be established and God had to receive something for his service. Figuration of offerings accompanies humanity and we encounter it also in Christianity. Perception of justice equals perception of balance.
Dual principle is described in many works (see 1, 27, 65, 68) and it is the foundation of the world. Some (see 27) are based on the Confucian theory of contradictory principles of Yin and Yang. Usually we find the unity of opposites and cooperation of opposite pairs – positive and negative particles in models of atoms, a woman and a man in a family, stamen and pistil in plants, etc. Knowable world is reflected in contradictions between which some sort of balance is always established. People are able to see only what is in contrast to something else.
Contradictory terms can be both real and ideal existences, depending on whether they change in time and space or whether they are eternal and constant. Order and chaos are certainly polar principles of an ideal being, while sellers and buyers are interest counterparts of natural market mechanism. Woman and man are complementary opposite objects of real existence.
Some equilibrium is a natural principle in itself, and it can either be used or rejected. Some, especially those relating to social issues can be directly controlled by man and requires introductory circumstance. In addition, I will discuss some types of equilibrium, such as balance of social and individual interests, which requires general perspective and sense of belonging to a community of people. Without this introductory circumstance they either take interests of an individual to an extreme and the society deteriorates, or, usually for ideological reasons, the inetersts of society are prioritized over an individual to the extreme and an individual suffers from some kind of autocracy and oppression.
Already Aristotle speaks of the golden middle way (see 12). It is a kind of balance of contradictions. When implementing equilibrium (harmonization) of polar values (opposites), natural dual mechanism is usually established like i.e. a family based on a balance of polar elements, a man and a woman, or a new concept. As Aristotle says, a middle way between polar principles of cowardice and arrogance is courage. But even courage requires certain circumstances to manifest, which may be given by certain facts of the general order, or some other substantial condition, such as the patriotic concept. That’s why it does not always manifest and it may not even be a permanent inner conviction of man, but occur only under certain circumstances. The Middle Way creates ambiguous world of various terms known to us which we often find difficult to navigate in. Therefore, courage can take different forms and gradations. Polar principles may be such that they can create static balance between themselves (electrical positive and negative), a compromise (opposite poles can create penetration), the middle way in order to create a new concept (courage) or entire natural mechanism functioning dynamically (market, family). But everything is always based on balance and will (in human life) or energy (in physics) to maintain it. Will is an expression of psychic potential and the work is by consumption of energy.
Things may evolve over time and change. Opposite poles of reality may cease to exist and new entities may rise. Opposites may not be eternal values. Opposites can also call the thesis and antithesis. Usually, when a thesis appears (light) antithesis isautomatically created (darkness), a value which existed before but was not perceived suddenly emerges as a concept. Mutual struggle can be called dialectic which overcomes both opposite poles and a harmonious product synthesis will be created. I consider dialectic (the word is used very liberally nowadays) to be consistent with Hegel’s fight for destruction of counterparts, not just some light struggle within a system. But expressions like thesis and antithesis can also be used in cases when their termination does not occur or when it cannot be anticipated. Extinction of counterparts and emergence of a new product in this world is a rather special case which cannot excluded. Often, if examined essentially, we come to a conclusion that the foundation of counterparts did not extinguish and the synthesis is actually a middle way. If there is a possibility that the dialectical relationship really penetrated into the natural principles, then it is no longer a natural principle. This can happen in families where the woman and man no longer cooperate and begin to fight with each other. Another example would be a market which is somehow decomposed from outside by destruction of consensus, which is the sale, by a war between the seller and the buyer. However, this all only happens in presence of some deformed external conditions that destroy the natural principle.
The world is moving in opposites; and balance, harmonization, and middle way between opposites are the foundation of both real and ideal world. If one of the contradictions disappears, its counterpart vanishes from sight of human perception with it. If by chance the evil disappeared, good would disappear as well because it would no longer be seen. In fact it does not disappear but noone recognizes it). In Confucian philosophy the opposites of yin and yang depend on each other (like in Aristotle). If one o fthem disappears, the other disappears too. Consequently, all expressions dependent on opposite concepts disappear, wherever there is a middle way between them. If light ceases to exist, there will only be darkness; and all colors and shades will vanish, too. Matter and its counterpart, an empty space, there must be both to allow existence of all transitions in bulk density between these polar values. Thesis and antithesis are overcome by dialectic and synthesis occurs. In this case both counterparts cease to exist.
Dialectical process is rather rare and to explain world only dialectically would be a mistake. Polar values usually cannot be relativized and they cannot narrow the distance between them without consequences. This is especially true for human society. Good and evil cannot get closer and the differences between men and women cannot be reconciled, just like the differences between rod and pistil in plants. Such mergers bring deconstruction of middle ways roads and polarity-dependent mechanisms. When a negative and positive charge in electric current disappears, electric power stops working. The poles must always keep their charge which is continuously updated from source, in order to allow all appliances connected to the electric network operating. This example speaks for others.
Pragmatism is a middle way between the self-serving and virtuous conduct. We know that virtuous behavior is needed, but it is not possible just by itself. Such a virtuous person could not actually exist because he would give away everything would eventually die of starvation. We also know that knightly virtues often led only to wars, to fights over honor with no pragmatic reason. The middle way is productive, and it largely depends on where between the two polar concepts it establishes itself. Therefore, there must be a balance of morality and expediency. Most activities, although virtuous, must be rewarded. On the other hand, public service can not be only based on benefits. Extreme positions as absolute moralism as the opposite of selfishness are the incompatible with normal life. Also, there is nothing like absolutely virtuous society in which people do not seek rewards.
Market mechanism may be an example. Conflicting interests of the customer, who requires the highest quality and lowest price, must be harmonized with the interests of the seller, who wants the highest possible price. These polar principles have to be harmonized in the form of contract, to reach consensus, which is sale. It is also impossible to remove the polar principles and the sale remained. We learned that during the communist regime, where sale was in fact mere allocation which had nothing to do with sales as a middle way between different polar interests. This could not work and replace the market. The market is thus based on a dual system, a kind of configuration that is stable.
Also creating unity of a man and woman, merging their mission in life to only making money and mastery in employment, decomposes family. Polar principle – a woman, must be a woman in a perfect sense of the term, must have a goal – kids and family. Otherwise she is not a woman but just a sexual and romantic partner. The two opposites must be really opposites and have a meaning; otherwise no middle way or a natural mechanism can occur. For this reason, the cases where the opposites form more or less stable and to a certain extent determined system of relations, are called a dual system. Such system in the normal state does not evolve into something else, just repeats generation by generatio, and is essentially a natural principle. Such system requires conditions without which it disintegrates; even if opposite poles remain intact.
At the same time, of course, in the sense of dialectics, the whole dual system may cease to exist, even a family, because of clashes (figths) between women and men. There will, however, be no new quality; maybe just a new family with different partners. Unfortunately none of those decadent systems, including current modernity, allow for balance. This is because the key condition is gone. Although such key condition usually is belonging to the community, it can rather be proper balance between belonging and separation, in which separation is only limited to a certain area. Removal of one polar principle causes destruction of even balance and the middle path. When a person is no longer dependent on natural balance and intervenes in natural processes, his effort is directed toward imbalance, because of his belief that this will remove by annoying opposing poles. Therefore, life is based on the balance of hardships and pleasures, rights and duties, powers and responsibilities, and so on. Modernist people do not want to see this, and do not want to hear it either. People who were brought up in modernist culture do not want to understand and still keep coming up with new requirements and new rights without requiring responsibilities. State budget deficit is also just a derivative of this way of thinking. Too many people have different rights to payment, but no obligations.
There is a continuous need to balance opposites and thus create middle roads and equilibrium constant and necessary. This is a basic law of life. Within a free market one has to constantly resist the attacks of marketing strategies and offers. One has to constantly restrict own access to pleasures and not to succumb to them. A society has to constantly fight against crime and repressive organs have to exist. They cannot be omitted and their activities cannot be relativized. Distinguishing between good and evil is still needed. Even this is a continuing battle that never ends. It requires willpower and consumes work, and all the efforts of blending opposites or relativization go against natural life. Life is thus mostly a kind of dialectic without static output, when opposing values are not removed. Balance does not mean symmetry.
Middle road or harmonization may not be found in the middle of polarities. Conversely, asymmetry produces in man will (energy) to live and fight. To make a dynamic mechanism work, asymmetry has to exist. This is sometimes called controlling deviation and it provides the will for balancing. Market can only exist when there is moderate demand for goods, or at least when its need can be assumed. Only then it makes sense to produce goods. Then further asymmetry – overproduction – leads to lowering prices, while excess demand to their increase. Both types of deviations are governed by competition alone. Man can only modify methods of struggle for survival, but cannot omit it from life. The whole development of civilization must therefore be directed only to the cultivation techniques of struggle for survival but not toward its removal.
Sometimes cancellation of one of the polar principles is required, such as woes, to only enjoy pleasures. Balance is still achieved through so-called law of conservation of woes (see 68), which ensures the harmony of life. This applies even when man is doing very well and has everything for his happiness and to his use. Concerns are inevitable and always will come, the more frequently and with higher urgency when they are relegated.
Opposites either can or cannot be removed. Again, it depends in which layer they are included. It is certainly possible to relativize differences and complementary activities between a man and a woman, so creation of a functional family is no longer possible. It is also possible to abolish market and replace it by goods allocation. However, good and evil or matter and empty space can not be removed because both principles are part of idela existence and foundation of the world. It is only possible to pretend that evil does not exist.
Sense of balance is usually already connected with human autonomous ethics and this is called justice. This is both part of genetic information, but is especially strengthened by upbringing. Justice is a human virtue. Also, the whole awareness of balance is usually virtuous.
Balance of rights and obligations is value that fulfills human individual and social life with fair settlement of activities. For an activity (duty) a right (reward) is provided. This is not just wage for one’s work, but many, many other things that must be in balance if the society shall function properly. Therefore, social rules must include a balance of rights and obligations. Currently, the perception of justice is distorted and thus also the balance of rights and obligations. This is usually explained as equality. Equality does not mean balance and it generally contradicts equilibrium. E.g. equal pay is unfair to those who work more.
Balance is also in the punishment of crime: punishment is to ensure “balance of damage to make revenge pointless.” If this is not the case and the punishment is just some ‘educational act’, it is unjust. Criminal behavior is promoted by this and usually spreads. This usually remains a problem at times when pseudo-humanists reject collective guilt. A terrorist kills many people, but he commits suicide and therefore punishes himself. So nothing happens, and crime is growing and terrorists achieve their purpose which is to destroy other nations. To get things right, terrorist bases shall be liquidated on their territory and collaborators should be collectively executed to ensure equilibrium in damage that is collectively understood, and is necessary for the general justice.
From the balance of rights and obligations balance of social and individual interests in society derives. Society shall not restrict individual interests, and it should do so only as little as possible. On the other hand, an individual must fulfill his or her obligations to society; and these can be demanded. Again, key condition is needed.
For any organization it is necessary to balance unity and diversity. This is sometimes called unity in diversity. The idea of unification requires uniting of all the articles of the organization, even though these are otherwise differentiated and have their own vested interests, but not opposed to the interests of the other articles. The unifying idea must prevail and sort out behind the unifying line articles that do not conform to the unifying idea. At the same time variety strengthens the organization. Too much unity can mean failure and loss of innovation, while too much diversity can signify the decay.
The balance of virtues and rewards is a natural rule on which productive life stands and which allows operation of natural mechanisms. It also refers to the man himself and his autonomous ethics. Many people want to selflessly commit to society, but they naturaly see it as their own self-promotion as well, their benefit. Where are these components are not in balance, conflict inevitably occurs. The idea that a councilor must be only virtuous and shall not benefit from his position is a mistake that many times backfired. The Communists relied on a new, virtuous, socialist man; whilst religious fundamentalists believe that it is sufficient to have faith, and everything will get resolved. On the other hand, policy based solely on buying representatives (ie only based on rewards) in combination with the idea that everything in politics can be bought leads to immorality and chaos. The balance of virtues and benefits is a compromise that is hard to achieve. But the idea that it does not exist, and the idea that everything can be bought (reward) or that the solution to everything is virtue, is false. Both components are completely unavoidable attribute of success.
Within society it is important to balance solidarity and competition which is necessary for its function. Togetherness, often understood as solidarity, is based on virtues, whilst competition, usually the market, is based on reward. This balance is usually ensured by the whole community and the whole cultural environment, including education. This must teach solidarity, because this is less intuitive. Key circumstance is the balance between belonging and freedom (separation), very problematically achievable and sustainable. It is also difficult to understand by people who are dependent on ideologies.
The balance of freedom and order means that order requires restriction of freedom in order to preserve freedom. In fact order provides balance of freedom and constraint. If freedom was unlimited, society would drown in anarchy, fight, and pursuit of selfish individuals and ultimately would destroy itself. Therefore, although we require a general order, it shall be one that leaves the greatest degree of freedom so that society works productively and inalienable human rights to freedom are ensured. It is a difficult task and every society struggles with it again and requires key circumstance: belonging to the community.
Balance of the spiritual and material component is an important part of life. Spirit can only reside in a body, and a healthy spirit in a healthy body, as Sokols used to argue. Spiritual life of man is dependent on health and health is often influenced by spiritual activities. It is not true that everything is determined spiritually, and this will sort out everything, neither that everything is just matter (materialists). Also, everything can not be solved solely by material measures (i.e. child benefits won’t solve degeneration of human race), or only spiritually (via belief in some ideology). But we can not imagine life in society which would be solely spiritual regardless of their substance, as it is done by some religious communities (sects), and As we can see maladaptive outcomes of such activities (i.e. turning away from life, leading to isolation and extinction). Only material aspect alone is not sufficient. Even the Communists, who argued that there is no spiritual life, eventually wanted ‘morality of a socialist man’, a sort of selfless virtuous behavior, a kind of religion and belief in the correctness of communist ideas. No society can live without some basic spiritual activities.
There are other very important types of balance applicable to all areas of life. Balance is also moderation and non-extremism. This does not strictly apply to pushing claims for business gain, where exaggeration is part of the strategy. This should not though penetrate the promotion of values. Extreme freedom and equality is denying of those values themselves. Promotion of market principles to the areas where market never worked well (i.e. education, politics) is also extremalism. The market then ceases to be a tool and becomes a ‘purpose in itself’.
It is also necessary to balance the necessity and arbitrariness and individual and general will. Man seeks to increase his freedom and thereby expand arbitrariness; will provoked by life necessity is restricted. Life that does not require will decline; whilst freedom and happiness cannot exist without arbitrariness.
Opposite values are often not presented clearly enough. Establishment of equilibrium requires abstract thinking, because both opposite values must be within the field of view of general knowledge, which must also include key circumstance. Good example is the balance of ecological and economic thinking, very often badly perceived precisely because it lacks a key circumstance, in this case belonging to the society. Ecologs extremalize their requirements as much as the economists. Only unity can lead to reconciliation and a reasonable solution.
Of course, there are many situations that look like dual world of opposing values. Fire and water are used as opposing principles. This is not the case. Although it is true that water is used to extinguish fire; fire is hot and warm water is cold (if it is not hot), they are is not opposing principles. The current era is mainly characterized by imbalance. It is caused by the fact that the natural principles which create the balance are often overcome and balance that requires social events as a key circumstance, the sense of belonging to society and the entire biosphere, ceases to exist due to isolation (separation) from man and due to reduced thinking. There is even no specific key circumstance of balance – gratitude. The young do not even have a feeling that they should somehow be grateful not only to their parents, but also teachers, and the whole environment that brought them up and placed lot of effort in them, and based on this equalized their debt.